Requirements of ISO 27001
The ISO 27001 Information Security Management Systems (ISMS) standard is one of the most popular ISO standards. Its popularity continues to grow as organisations and individuals become increasingly concerned about the security of confidential information and cyber security generally.
Businesses choose to implement ISO 27001 because it helps address these challenges.
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An introduction to ISO 27001
There are a few things you can do to familiarise yourself with the basics of ISO 27001:
Watch our 4 minute video The Alcumus ISOQAR Guide to Implementing ISO 27001.
Read our blog What is ISO 27001? Who needs it? Why?
Download our free Guide to Managing Corporate Risk in Cyberspace.
The Main Clauses of ISO 27001
Clause 1 – Scope
This describes the scope of the ISO 27001 standard. It doesn’t outline any actual requirements.
Clause 2 – Normative references
This clause identifies other standards and documents that relate to and are referenced within ISO 27001.
Clause 3 – Terms and definitions
This explains certain key words and phrases that are used throughout the standard. It helps you understand some of the jargon.
Clause 4 – Context of the organisation
Here us where you build a picture of the business environment in which you operate. You need to understand this before you can start to build your system.
- Determine the relevant external and internal factors that affect your organisation
- A SWOT (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats) analysis may prove useful
- You should identify everyone with an interest in your business such as staff, suppliers, clients – known as ‘stakeholders’. This is particularly important as you are probably responsible for their confidential data and information relating to them
- You also need to determine the ‘scope’ of your system; that is, for example, what sites and services will be covered by your ISMS
Clause 5 – Leadership and commitment
An ISMS won’t work without commitment from top management. This is key to the success of your system and auditors will look for evidence of this.
- Top management must be directly involved and take overall responsibility
- They should develop an Information Security Policy
- Roles and responsibilities must be clear
- The system must be properly resourced
Clause 6 – Planning
Risk-based thinking is a key principle of ISO 27001. You should plan actions to address risks and opportunities. This is all about ensuring that you get the expected results and there are no nasty surprises. You should also be aiming for continual improvement.
- Define and apply an information security risk assessment process
- Identify, analyse and evaluate information security risks
- Apply an information security risk treatment process
- Establish information security objectives and plan how you are going to achieve them (who, what, how, where, when)
Clause 7 – Support
You need to take steps to ensure that the ISMS is given the appropriate support from top management to enable it to function effectively.
- You need to make sure that the system is adequately resourced
- Employees must be aware of the ISMS and their role within it
- People must be competent in their roles
- You must have effective communications in place
- You need to keep appropriate documentation to allow the system to function effectively (but this need not be burdensome)
Clause 8 – Operation
This is where your system comes to life. This clause is about the day-to-day activities that produce the products and services to deliver to your customers.
- Make sure what you do will result in the desired outcomes
- Information security risk assessments should be done at planned intervals
- The information security risk treatment plan must be implemented
- Outsourced processes must be controlled
Clause 9 – Performance evaluation
The only way to tell if your ISMS is working and you are raising standards is to measure what you do.
- Determine what needs to be monitored, how to monitor and when
- You must carry out internal audits
- The results must be measured, analysed and evaluated
- Top management must review the system and performance
Clause 10 – Improvement
You must put things right when they go wrong. This is ‘corrective action’ which leads to continual improvement. This underpins the concept of ISO 27001 and all ISO management systems.
- Identify nonconformities and take corrective action
- Eliminate causes of nonconformity to prevent recurrence
- Make changes to the ISMS itself if needed
- Aim for continual improvement of the ISMS